From HISTORY OF THE PAN-HANDLE, West Virginia, 1879, by J. H. Newton,
G. G. Nichols, and A. G. Sprankle; Chapter XLIV, pages 251-155.
HOW THE PIONEERS GOT ALONG WITHOUT PHYSICIANS WITH INSTANCES OF REMARKABLE SUPERSTITIOUSNESS -- OLD FASHINED REMEDIES -- BRIEF BIOGRAPHIES OF WHEELING'S EARLIEST PHYSICIANS NO LONGER LIVING, AND SHORT SHETCHES OF INVALUABLE MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS WORTHY OF THE NAIL CITY.
Having met with the existence of deep curiosity, almost universally, to know how our pioneers got along without a fair sprinkling of physicians -- particularly in view of them being so plentiful in these days -- we instituted many inquiries on the subject with a view to informing our readers, and to be frank in the matter, and at the same time explicit and correct, we have resolved that we cannot do better justice to the subject than QUOTE FROM A HIGHLY INTERESTING AND ABLY PENNED PAPER, BY DR. E. A. HILDRETH, contributed in the Centennial year to the State Medical Society's annual report, in which he says:
During the period from the fall of 1769, the time of he first occupancy of the site of this city by the Zane brothers, until they laid it out in 1793, there is no record, or tradition, of any physician having practiced here. The early settlers being in a wild, uncultivated country, far removed from any other, upon a frontier exposed to daily attacks from their savage neighbors, surrounded by dangers and privations, created a community of interest and benevolence, exhibited by mutual nursing and attendance in sickness or injury; from experiences of this kind, tradition and history have handed down to this centennial period, the names and practice of a number of men and women noted for their success. I give the following specimen of surgery which was treated at Fort Henry: "In 1784, Thomas Mills, a noted pioneer, was wounded in fourteen places by rifle shots from the Indians, one arm and one leg were broken, besides the flesh wounds; his comrades escaped being hurt, bringing him with them to Fort Henry (now Wheeling), where, having no surgeons or doctors, he fell under the care of Mrs. Zane and Williams. Had he been in the regular service, with plenty of surgeons, he probably would have lost both limbs by amputation; but this being out of the question here, these women with their fomentations and applications of slipery elm bark, not only cured his wounds, at the time deemed impossible, and restored him to health, but also saved both his limbs." We remember him well as a hale, hearty old man, fifty years after the treatment of his wounds in the Fort. He stated that the pain of his wounds was greatly relieved by poultices of "Jimson Weed" (strammonium). As a specimen of the domestic practice of the time, we beg to give the following cases, the details of which were given by parties who are well known in this community.
Benjamin McMechen states that his son William, now living six miles below this city, when about twelve years old, was attacked with inflammation and swelling of the right joint, which had continued about four months, with but little amelioration. The limb was semi-flexed and could not be extended. His general health had suffered and he was considerably emaciated. He took him to Esquire Zane for advice and treatment. The Esquire examined the boy's limb and told his father he thought that he could cure it; this occurred in the morning. The inflammed parts were covered with a hot herb poultice, which in the afternoon was removed. He then commenced a series of manipulations and frictions with his hands, making gentle attempts to extend the limb, which was finally accomplished and the boy instructed to stand up on both feet. The next day he could walk, and in a short time recovered the use of his limb, and has continued well to this day. Another patient of the same practitioner was Mr. Godfrey, who states that he had a swelled thumb, "one inch larger around than his wrist, and so exceedingly painful and tender as to entirely prevent sleep or rest for four days and nights." He consulted Esquire Zane, who manipulated the inflammed thumb and advised him to go to bed early, without his supper. He states that he then slept soundly, from 4 o'clock P.M. until he was aroused at 6 o'clock the next morning, the pain in his thumb having entirely ceased. After a repetition of this process for two days longer, the tenderness and swelling were entirely removed. Mr. Godfrey thinks it was a felon. He is still living in this city, and may be consulted as to the particulars of this case. I have given the facts, being entirely unable to account for the results. We may infer that the early settlers were not free from superstition. Such incidents abound in the History of Old Medicine.
Many of the early settlers were familiar with the properties and uses of the medicinal plants, barks, and roots indigenous to this country, and made a regular practice of gathering them, in their appropriate season, which after proper curing, were stored away for use. The following were the prevailing diseases and therapeutics of that time: Intermittent fever was successfully treated with barks of dog-wood, cherry and poplar, digested in whisky, or decoction of boneset (Eup.P.) Remittent or bilious fever was their regular summer and fall disease. On its incursion, the patient was generally vomited freely with lobelia, after which he was purged with infusion of white walnut bark, and sweated with copious draughts of warm elder-blossom tea (Sambucus N.). We have no means of ascertaining the mortality, but from old residents learn the disease was seldom fatal. Dysentery was one of the most dreaded diseases, often baffling their limited and uncertain therapeutics; and was treated with the internal use of "oak-ooze," May-apple root and walnut bark, slippery elm bark (Ulmus), bitter elm bark, (the latter regarded as a specific), with hot fomentations over the abdomen. Acute intestinal inflammation, with high grade of fever, marked its course and added greatly to its fatality. In inflammations of the chest, patients were steamed with the vapor of whisky, or hot water, used comfrey, and spikenard, with sassafras pith, and slippery elm as demulcent drinks, and in case of pain or great difficulty in breathing, the local application of horseradish leaves or mustard, as rubefacients. Inf. Virginia snake-root (Serpentaria) was generally relied upon as an effectual remedy for coughs of all kinds, regardless of their pathology. Dried Indian turnip (Arum. T.) scraped down with honey was frequently given for the same purpose. Rheumatism was treated with cohosh (Cimicifuga R.), blood-root (sanguinaria C.) and bark of leather-wood. This treatment was sometimes interpolated with a "regular Indian sweat;" this was performed thus: A stone of considerable size was made red hot, the patient crouched over it, closely wrapped in a blanket; portions of water were poured over the hot stone to generate the steam, which being kept up for a certain time, the patient was lifted into bed with the blanket still around him, and then sponged off with water. An old resident, who had been a great sufferer from rheumatism, after having undergone the "Indian sweat," declared to me that he experienced the most complete and glorious relief of his torturing pains and slept soundly that night, the first for many weeks. It was not a bad imitation of the celebrated "Turkish bath" of modern days. Opthalmia was treated with Stramonium and Inf Hydrasis Can'd.
The first physician who permanently settled in Wheeling was Gideon Comstock Forsythe, in 1803. It is not certainly known where he emigrated from, but probably Chester county, Pennsylvania. He was alone in the practice until 1806, when Doctors H. Potter, Thomas Toner and James Ralff, studied medicine under him. The first named student became Dr. Forsythe's partner, which continued but a short time, when Dr. Potter left. Returning to Wheeling in October, 1808, he opened an office for himself, practicing here for several years. Dr. Forsythe continued to practice here until after the close of the war of 1812, when he emigrated to the "English Turn," below New Orleans and embarked in the manufacturing of rum from molasses. Dr. Thomas Toner, after practicing four or five years, gave it up, and became associated with his brother-in-law in editing and publishing the "Northwestern Virginia Gazette". Dr. James Rolff, who came from Bedford, Pennsylvania, having finished his studies with Dr. Forsythe, was appointed a surgeon of one of the Virginia regiments, which, being ordered to Richmond, Virginia, in 1814, he accompanied his regiment and never returned.
DR. MARTIN LUTHER TODD, who was one of the successors of Dr. Forsythe, was the son of a respectable farmer of Washington county, state of New York, where he was born April 29th, 1782. Having completed his literary studies, he commenced the study of medicine with his brother, Dr. John Todd, and finished his medical course in 1808, or about that time. The two brothers went into business in Waynesburg, Pa., but becoming dissatisfied with Waynesburg, dissolved partnership in 1814, Dr. John moving to "Ten Milem," in Washington county, Pa., and Dr. M. L. Todd locating in Wheeling, then a village, numbering only a few hundred inhabitants. Not long after his arrival in Wheeling, he found extensively prevailing, a low grade of malarious fever, of which more died than recovered, called by some "Cold Plague," supposed to be contagious, but probably a malignant form of typhus fever, in the treatment of which he was eminently successful, using largely tonics, stimulants and antiseptics. He also used, with happy effect, brewers' yeast. The Dr. was honored by having conferred upon him by Colonel Moses Shepherd, the office of surgeon of the 140th regiment of State troops, then being raised in the Panhandle counties of the State. He retained his commission until the close of the war. After peace was restored, he resumed his medical practice, and in a few years became one of the leading physicians of the town, being quite popular, affable and sociable in his manners, secured to him a large and lucrative practice, which he enjoyed for many years. He married a daughter of Mr. Andrew Woods, one of the early settlers of the place. By this union they had but one child, a daughter, who married M. W. Junkins, M. D., of Bellaire, Ohio. He spent the latter part of his life with his son-in-law, Dr. M. W. Junkins, and died on the 8th of March, 1866, in the 84th year of his age.
JOSHUA MORTON, M. D., was born in Massachusetts, studied medicine and graduated at Harvard University. He opened an office in Wheeling in 1816, and continued in active practice until his death in the early part of 1839. Soon after settling in Wheeling, he formed a partnership with Dr. William Scott, which at the end of one year was dissolved, Dr. S. leaving the place.
JAMES W. CLEMENS, M.D., was born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, May 26th, 1795. His grandfather emigrated to Loudon county, Virginia, in 1764, and afterwards to Washington county, Pennsylvania, then considered a part of Virginia. Dr. C. graduated at Washington College, Pennsylvania, in 1816, after which he removed to Wheeling, where he commenced the study of medicine and at the same time taught school. He began practice in 1819. In 1822 he formed a partnership with J. W. Ray, a druggist, which proved a pecuniary success, but by the great fire of 1827 both lost everything, and had to begin the world anew. He attended medical lectures at the University of Pennsylvania, and graduated in the winter of 1823-4. He was associated in partnership, successively, with Drs. William Isett, Baltzell, Thomas Townsend, John Frissell and R. H. Cummins, but died the 21st of November, 1846, in his fifty-second year.
DR. JOHN EOFF was born in Jefferson county, Virginia, in 1788. Having practiced medicine in Charleston, Kanawha county, he moved to Wheeling about the year 1817. He had married Miss Helen L. Quarrier of Richmond, Virginia, by whom he had four sons and six daughters. His oldest son, John Q. Eoff, studied medicine and practiced several years. Dr. Eoff and family being wealthy, he after nine or ten years retired from practice. He died January 28, 1859, in his 71st year.
DR. JOB WILSON was educated at Princeton, New Jersey, and studied medicine under Dr. Rush, of Philadelphia. Began practice in 1812 which was continued until his death in 1829. His place of residence was six miles above Wheeling. He had a great reputation as a surgeon, and was a bold and successful operator, being sent for far and near. One leg being shorter than the other and partly flexed, he devised a saddle and an upright horn to enable him to ride on horseback.
DR. WILLIAM WATERMAN practiced medicine here in 1819. We have no further account of his history. After about one year he went to Ohio.
DR. THOMAS TOWNSEND was born near Uniontown, Fayette county, Pa., about the year 1787. His early advantages for an education were very limited. He moved here from Mt. Pleasant, Ohio, and commenced the practice of medicine in 1828. We do not think he ever attended medical lectures, and from such facts in his history as we can learn, he undertook the study of medicine when about thirty-five or thirty-six years of age, and was essentially a self-made man. He was fond of natural science, and a hard student in everything he studied. He gathered a complete herbarium of the botany of this region, and having been frequently seen climbing around our hills and putting specimens into his hat for preservation, originated a report of his being of unsound mind; for, said they, "we saw him wandering over the hills, pulling up weeds and putting them into his hat." He subsequently studied the geology and mineralogy of our hills, and collected a very clever cabinet. This latter service, according to the ideas of his old enemies, corroborated their opinion of his sanity; for they saw him "picking up old stones and bringing them home." The literary taste of this place was not then of the highest order. He died of pneumonia on the 29th of March, 1851, being about sixty-four years of age. At a meeting of the medical profession, in April, 1873, Dr. J. C. Hupp having stated that Dr. T.'s place of burial in Mt. Wood Cemetery was unmarked, and almost unknown, a subscription was made to defray the expense of a memorial stone, which has been purchased and placed in position by Dr. Hupp.
In the period from 1820 to 1828, Drs. Emery, John Thompson, Hunter, Downey and I. H. Irwin practiced here for short periods, whose history we are unable to learn.
JAMES TANNER, M. D., was of Irish parentage, and born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1796. He studied medicine under Dr. Buckler, of Baltimore, and graduated in the Baltimore Medical College, in 1819 (?). He settled in Wheeling in 1820 (?). Soon after which he married Miss Deborah Graham, by whom he had a son and a daughter; the son died when about 14 years old, and the daughter is now the accomplished wife of Hon. A. I. Boreman, of Parkersburg, W. Va., who was the first governor of this state. Dr. T. was thoroughly read in medicine, and actively alive to its progress and improvement. He participated largely in the affairs of the city government, being at the time of his death, December 26, 1858, mayor of the city, and then 62 years old.
DR. D. B. DORSEY came here in 1834. He was a minister in the M. E. Church, and also practiced medicine. He was the first we saw use a cylinder of wood as a stethoscope, in 1835, in sounding the chest in case of asthma, and was probably the first to use this means in physical diagnosis in this city. He went to Steubenville, and of his further history we can give no account.
DR. JONATHAN ZANE was born in Wheeling, August 25, 1802. He studied medicine under Dr. Rhodes, of Zanesville, Ohio. Began to practice in Wheeling in the fall of 1826. His health becoming impaired, he emigrated to Natchitoches, La., where he died in 1836.
S. P. HULLIHEN, M. D. - The following sketch, is condensed from a short biography of Dr. Hullihen, by E. B. Gardette, M. D., president of the board of trustees of the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, which appeared January 7th, 1858, in the "North American Medico-Chirugical Review," a journal conducted under the auspices of Professor S. D. Gross: Simon P. Hullihen was born in Northumberland county, Pa., on the 10th December, 1810, and died in Wheeling, March 27, 1857, of typhoid pneumonia, aged 46 years, 3 months, and 17 days. He was of Irish extraction; his father and ancestry were plain Pennsylvania farmers. In his ninth year, young Hullihen met with a serious accident by which both feet were so severely burned that he was to some serious extent crippled for life. His early educational advantages were only such as were afforded by the district school. At an early age he manifested a love for medicine and surgery, and his vigorous pursuit of these studies was shown by his success in after life. He received the degree of Doctor of Medicine from the Washington Medical College, Baltimore, Maryland, and in 1832, commenced practice, combining dentistry with general surgery, at Canton, Starke county, Ohio. In 1835, he married and removed to Wheeling. He never practiced general medicine; his great success in usefulness appeared in surgical operation. Patients of all classes, confiding in his skill and frank character, came in great numbers from the surrounding country, so that the value of his services, as well as the influence of his reputation, were considered the common property of Wheeling. In 1845, he established a private Infirmary, and several years later he succeeded in establishing the Wheeling Hospital, which is now an ornament and unpretending charity, located in the northern part of this city. This was a favorite project of Dr. Hullihen. Having concerted measures with Bishop Whelan, and secured the aid of the Sisters of the Catholic Church, a house was purchased by the Bishop, and a charter obtained March 12, 1850, under the name of The Wheeling Hospital. Although Dr. Hullihen was the life and soul of the enterprise, it has been largely improved and extended to its present capacity by the contributions of benevolent persons, liberal expenditures of Bishop Whelan, and gentle charity of the good Sisters. Dr. Hullihen was a man of true genius, and especially gifted in reference to original whereby to overcome difficulties; he possessed the discriminating mind, the rapid eye, and the cunning hand, that act in harmony and combine to produce spontaneous and correct decisions.
He had a warm and most generous heart -- one so full of the best impulses toward his fellow men that he never found room there for himself, or time to consider his own interest; and yet such was the untiring industry of his active professional life, and the many strong personal attachments he inspired, that grateful and unexpected compensations continually came to his ungrasping hand, to be again scattered by unselfish liberality.
Without pretending to offer full statistics of the operations performed by Dr. Hullihen, it may convey a correct idea, both of the range and extent of his surgery, to state that during the last ten or twelve years of his life he operated in numerous cases for cataract, hare-lip, cleft-palate, cancer, antrum cases, strabismus, making new noses, new lips and underjaws, besides very numerous cases of general surgery; add to these the busy practice of a successful dentist, and we exhibit an extraordinary amount of labor, of energy, and usefulness. Dr. H. also published many valuable papers on medical subjects.
He was the inventor of many new forms of instruments of great value to the dentist and surgeon; but he never took credit to himself for these improvements, allowing the cutlers the free use of what he originated.
His death caused profound sorrow throughout the city. Appropriate resolutions were adopted by the Medical Faculty of the city; by the Wheeling Hospital Association; by the City Council, and by a public meeting of citizens at the court house.
DR. J. H. KIEFFER was born in Western Pennsylvania. In his early manhood he was a Lutheran preacher, having read somewhat of medicine before emigrating to Wheeling; in 1836, he turned his attention to practice here, chiefly among his German friends. In 1845 he entered into partnership with Dr. Victor L. Auler, which, however, after a few months, was dissolved, Dr. A. leaving the city. Dr. Kieffer died in 1848. He was highly esteemed among his countrymen, being regarded as a positive, rough and steady practitioner.
DR. ROBERT WILSON was a student with Dr. A. S. Todd for several years; after practicing here for a short period, went to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where he got up a purgative pill, and obtained for it flattering recommendations, signed by nearly all the members of the Methodist Conference, then in session in that city. He subsequently visited Washington city, and procured the names of many Congressmen, including Henry Clay, Calhoun and Webster, giving testimony to the virtues of his pills. The time and place of death are to us unknown.
SAM'L WASHINGTON M'ELHENNY, M. D., was born in Lewisburg, Greenbrier county, Virginia, December 25th, 1815. He was the son of Rev. John McE.; graduated at Athens College, Ohio, in 1834; attended medical lectures at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and obtained his degree in 1838. He began practice at Covington, Alleghany county, Virginia, which being chiefly a country practice, the exposure and fatigue proved too great for his failing health. He removed to Canton, Miss., in 1842, hoping in this Southern climate to recover his failing health, but being disappointed in this, he removed to Wheeling in the fall of 1843. Here he married the only daughter of the Hon. Z. Jacob. He continued his practice until his death, April 9th, 1853, being in his 38th year. He was a man highly esteemed by all, a christian gentleman of affable, engaging manners, and professional honor.
DR. JOSEPH THOBURN was the son of Matthew and Jane Thoburn, whose ancestors settled in the Province of Ulster, Ireland, in the seventeeth century. Dr. T. was born early in the year 1825, at Mallusk, county Antrim, Ireland. In the fall of the same year his father emigrated to Canada, and settled the next year on a farm in Belmont county, near St. Clairsville, Ohio. Joseph's advantages for an education were here very limited. After teaching school several years, he entered the office of Dr. Ephraim Gaston, of Morristown, Ohio, as medical student, and subsequently attended medical lectures, at Starling Medical College, Columbus, Ohio. In 1849 he located at Brownsville, Pa., where he formed a partnership, which was dissolved by his appointment, in 1850, as an assistant to Dr. Aul, of the Ohio Lunatic Asylum; being displaced by political influence in 1853, he then moved to Wheeling, and continued his practice until May, 1861, when he was commissioned as surgeon of the First Virginia Regiment, under Col. B. F. Kelley in the three months service. He accompanied his regiment and was in the battle of Phillipi, West Virginia, attending Col. Kelley, who was wounded in that engagement. In August, 1861, under a reorganization of the First Virginia Regiment, he was commissioned Colonel, and led his regiment in the numerous battles fought in the valley of Virginia, until he was killed in the battle of Cedar creek, October 19, 1864; being in his fortieth year. Dr. Thoburn was greatly beloved by his brother officers and men, as a man, full of kindness and benevolence, and of undoubted bravery and patriotism. As a physician, he possessed very clever attainments, with a high sense of professional honor. His body was brought to this city, and followed to Mt. Wood Cemetery by a public procession, composed of our city officers, council, medical faculty, military escort, and a large concourse of citizens.
DR. ERNEST AUGUST WILHELM WEHRMAN, was born in Hanover, Germany, and educated at the University of Gottingen; emigrated to Wheeling in 1838. He was a great favorite among the German population, devoting his chief attention to the practice of obstetrics. His health rapidly failing, he left the city, and settled near Captina, Ohio, in the spring of 1845, hoping to recover his health, but about one year afterwards he died.
DR. D. J. M'GINNIS came here from Fairmont, W. Va., and opened an office as a physician in 1868. He was also a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was a member of the Wheeling and Ohio County Medical Society. In the fall of 1870 his health failed rapidly, and he died December 22, 1870.
DR. JOSEPH S. ELDER was born in Strattonville, Clarion county, Pa., June 5, 1843, came here in 1868, and was employed as a prescriptionist in several apothecary shops. He attended lectures at Miami Medical College, Cincinnati, Ohio, where he graduated in 1871. After practicing in this city about two years, he went to Mason, Texas, in February, 1874, where he died January 5, 1875, aged thirty-two years.
ROBERT HAZLETT CUMMINS, M. D., was born in Washington, Pa., February 17, 1817. He was the oldest chld of James and Mary Cummins, who for many years have resided upon a farm in Belmont county, Ohio.
Dr. Cummins was educated in Washington College, Washington, Pa., and read medicine under the preceptorship of Dr. F. J. Le Moyne, of the latter place. He graduated in the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, in 1841.
Soon after leaving the University, he located in Wheeling, and entered into partnership with the late Dr. Jas. W. Clemens, with whom he continued to practice until the death of his partner, in 1846. Since 1850, his youngest brother, Dr. James Cummins, was associated with him. He was engaged in active practice until the 4th of April, 1875, when he died.
HENRY JOSEPH WEISEL, M. D., the son of Prof. Michael and Mary E. Weisel, was born in the city of Baltimore on the 22nd of April, 1840. Soon after Henry's birth his parents removed to Cumberland, Md. At an early age he exhibited quite a talent for music, composing a waltz at eleven years of age, which was deemed worthy of publication. At twelve years of age he composed a series called "The Stages of Matrimony." Among his last compositions were several "Masses," still used in the Catholic churches of Cumberland. His musical compositions amount to one hundred and fifty. From 1858, to 1861 he was a Professor of Music in St. Mary's College, Cincinnati, Ohio. In the latter year he began the study of medicine at Cumberland, under Drs. Thomas A. Headley and Samuel P. Smith, completing studies at Belleview Medical College, New York city, graduating in 1862. Dr. W. immediately entered the United States service, and was stationed at Clarysville Hospital, where he continued until the end of the war. Soon afterwards he located in Wheeling, where he practiced until his death on the 4th of November, 1873. Dr. W. married, September 25, 1872, Miss Mary G., daughter of John G. Breslin, Esq., of Charleston, West Virginia. During his residence in Wheeling, he was Health Officer of the city, and also was Secretary of the Wheeling and Ohio County Medical Society, and one of the vice-presidents of the Medical Society of the State of West Virginia. He contributed a paper to the latter society describing a "New Stethoscope" of his own invention, also "a report of five cases of Trichinosis," which were published in its Transactions. Dr. W. died of acute rheumatism, with pericarditis. He was much beloved for his charity and christian virtues, and was popular with all classes.
DR. BENJAMIN VALENTINE was born in the city of Metz, France, in 1808; educated at Maintz, Germany, and at the University of Leipsig. Emigrated to New York in 1833, remaining about one year. He then removed to Metagorda, Texas, where he practiced three years, after which he located at Newport, O., practicing there thirty years. In 1864 he came to Wheeling, practicing until his death in 1869, of heart disease, in the sixty-second year of his age.
DR. LOUIS KELLS was born in Steubenville, Ohio, in November, 1828; graduated at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, in 1849. Soon afterwards he settled in Wheeling. After practicing about three years, he removed to Steubenville, Ohio, where he died in 1873. He was a young physician of promise, and much esteemed by those who knew him.
The first Medical Society organized in this town was in 1835. How long it continued we have no correct mode of learning; the only mark of its former existence is the first regular fee bill, established by it, at a meeting held in the Lancasterian Academy, October 17th 1835. It is signed by Doctors J. Morton, John Eoff, J. Q. Eoff, Thomas Townsend, M. H. Houston, George Buchanan, T. Brues, James Tanner and D. B. Dorsey. Doctors Houston and Brues, are the only ones living at this writing. Some items in the fee bill, are, "For first visit, one to two dollars; every subsequent visit, half to one dollar. Obstetrical cases, (common,) five to eight dollars; charging half dollar for each visit after the third day. For bleeding or tooth-drawing, fifty cents. Small powders, twelve and a half cents. Anodyne powders, twenty-five cents." Medicine being always a separate charge. It discourages taking families by the year, and mercenary competition, both of which are stigmatized as derogatory to the dignity and character of the profession.
THE CITY DISPENSARY AND VACCINE INSTITUTION was organized November, 1845, by Doctors Todd, Bates, Frissell and Hildreth. The design of the Institution, was to systematize the attendance on the poor; the city council paying annually, the cost of medicines and rent of building. One or more members of the board of physicians attended at certain hours every day to prescribe for, dispense medicines, gratis, to such as applied for relief; and vaccinate whenever required. The physicians also visited such sick poor as were unable to attend, including cases of small pox. A supervisory board of trustees were also appointed. During its existence, (about four years,) they were prescribed for, and attended about 1,300 patients, and over 900 persons were vaccinated. This was the first voluntary medical charity instituted in this city. It was located on Chapline street, near Twelfth.
THE OHIO COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY was organized in the spring of 1847. Fraternal feeling among the faculty for several years anterior to its formation had not been altogether lovely. On the contrary, professional jealousies had largely interfered with every day intercourse between a number of our practitioners. One of our leading physicians (M. H. Houston) who had just returned from attendance on a meeting of the National Medical Association, invited the faculty to an entertainment at his residence, having prepared a speech for the occasion quite conciliatory in its tone, which he read. Ample justice having been done to the viands of his table, followed by some of the best of wines, the company became amiable and charitable, proving the truth of the Latin proverb, "in vino veritas," for the old grudges and jealousies being freely talked over and mutually explained, were succeeded by the bright sunshine of cordial feeling and good-will. Living members will remember with pleasure and profit our meetings, as it is certain that the standing and interests of the medical faculty were elevated and improved by the association.
DR. HULLIHEN'S PRIVATE INFIRMARY, located at first on Market street, and afterwards removed to John street, was established in 1845, and controlled bt Drs. Hullihen and M. H. Houston. The old one-story building that used to stand near the present site of the old First Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church, foot of Market street, near the creek, was purchased from James H. Forsythe, Esq., by Drs. Hullihen and Houston, and converted into an infirmary. Soon proving insufficient, for want of room, it was removed to John street, to a house owned by the late Lewis Steenrod. Mrs. Barnes was appointed manageress, which position she continued to fill until the establishment of the Wheeling Hospital. It continued until the
WHEELING HOSPITAL was opened. This institution was chartered March 12, 1850, and some time afterwards was put into operation. Drs. Hullihen, Frissell and Houston were its first attending physicians. It is beautifully situated on the east bank of the Ohio river, in North Wheeling, and is a large and commodious building, with all the appointments of a first-class hospital, capable of accomodating from one hundred and fifty to two hundred patients, and is under the excellent management of the Sisters of St. Joseph. Regular medical and surgical attendance by John Frissell, M. D. Patients are, however, at liberty to select from the regular profession any physicians of their choice. All forms of medical, and especially surgical cases, are skillfully treated and carefully nursed. United States marine patients are kept and attended here, in accordance with a contract with the Surgeon General of the United States Army. The terms vary from $4.50 to $10 per week, owing to the character of accomodation and services required, medical services and medicines being separate charges. The hospital is an ornament to the city and the asylum for the invalid.
THE MEDICAL SOCIETY OF THE CITY OF WHEELING AND COUNTY OF OHIO was instituted October 17, 1868, and continues to meet bi-monthly at the residence of its members, agreeably to notice by the secretary. It adopted a fee bill on January 8, 1869, which is the present standard. It has about twenty members at present. Dr. Richard Blum is president, and Dr. S. L. Jepson, secretary.
PIEDMONT HOSPITAL, built by the city several years since, is located on the creek bank east of the city. It is designed exclusively for small-pox patients, who are attended, and the house is under the control of the health officer of the city.
In reviewing the history of the medical profession here, it is evident that the organization and maintenance of medical societies have done more to regulate the practice, generate fraternal feeling, advance and elevate the profession, than all other means or projects; hence they are to be highly commended.